Contestations of the Liberal Script (SCRIPTS)
With Prof. Dr. Gwendolyn Sasse as principal investigator, ZOiS is part of the Cluster of Excellence „Contestations of the Liberal Script (SCRIPTS)“. In addition to the applying Freie Universität Berlin, six other research institutions are participating in SCRIPTS: the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW), the German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA), the Hertie School of Governance, the Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient and the WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
The liberal script is under pressure. Some of the most severe challenges liberal democracies are facing today emanate from authoritarian and non-liberal states as well as from violent non-state actors. These actors reject the liberal script defined as ideas and institutional prescriptions about the organisation of society based on the core principle of individual self-determination. Within liberal societies, populist movements question the meanings of the liberal model of political and social order. This is not the first time the liberal script has been contested. It has evolved through contestation and resistance both from within and outside liberal societies. However, current contestations are puzzling when measured against the broad developments in world society over the past decades. There have been few interstate wars, poverty reduction in many countries of the global South, modest unemployment rates in most of the consolidated economies of the global North, and a significant improvement of the Human Development Index.
The Cluster of Excellence SCRIPTS puts the current contestations of the liberal script in a broader historical, global, and comparative perspective by addressing three sets of questions:
- To what extent do current challenges target core principles of the liberal script? Which alternative scripts exist to the liberal model and how does their appeal develop? How do current contestations compare to previous ones?
- What are the causes of these contestations? Under which conditions does the liberal script lose or gain attractiveness, and what drives the rise of alternative scripts? Are the causes for current contestations different from earlier ones?
- What are the consequences of the intensified contestations of the liberal script? Are these contestations of a temporary nature or do they indicate the decline of the liberal script in the long run? Which implications do contestations and the responses to them have for politics, societies, individuals, and the global challenges the world is facing in the 21st century?
In tackling these questions, the Cluster brings together the social sciences and area studies with their Western and non-Western perspectives, with their comprehensive expertise in quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as their generalising conceptions and local understandings. The notion of double reflexivity conjoins these different perspectives, allowing us to discuss how core principles of the liberal script and the social sciences themselves were and are affected by entangled processes of contestations. We aim at generalisable knowledge while being aware of the relativity of knowledge production. This approach does not juxtapose but rather integrates different theoretical and methodological perspectives. It promises to produce new answers and insights to the most relevant questions in the social sciences concerning the organisation and development of politics and society in modern times.
Determinants of Mobilisation at Home and Abroad: Analysing the Micro-Foundations of Out-Migration & Mass Protest (MOBILISE)
On application of Prof. Dr. Olga Onuch (University of Manchester), Prof. Dr. Jacquelien van Stekelenburg (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam), Dr. Sorana Toma (ENSAE-CREST, Université Paris Saclay) and Prof. Dr. Gwendolyn Sasse, ZOiS is one of the participating institutions in the project „Determinants of Mobilisation at Home and Abroad: Analysing the Micro-Foundations of Out-Migration & Mass Protest (MOBILISE)“.
The MOBILISE project asks: When there is discontent, why do some people protest while others cross borders? Connecting theoretical expectations from the migration and protest literatures, we examine: a) whether similar factors drive the choice to migrate and/or protest at the individual level; b) how the political, social and economics context affects this mobilisation; c) whether these choices are independent of each other or mutually reinforcing/ undermining.
MOBILISE employs a multi-method (nationally representative face-to-face panel surveys, online migrant surveys, protest participant surveys, focus groups, life-history interviews, social media analysis) and a multi-sited research design. It covers Ukraine, Poland, Morocco and Brazil, which have recently witnessed large-scale emigration and protests. It follows migrants from these countries to Germany, the UK and Spain.
The project offers four key innovations:
- it combines protest and migration;
- it captures all the relevant groups for a comparative study (protesters, migrants, migrant protesters and people who have not engaged in migration or protest);
- it tracks individuals over time by employing a panel survey;
- it includes the use of social media data providing real time information on the role of networks and political remittances.
These features allow the project to generate an unprecedented amount of empirical data on the issues at stake, to make a major contribution to theory development in both migration and protest studies, and to offer key insights to policy makers that are of central importance for political and economic stability.
The Proliferation of Memory Laws and the Return of the Nation
Dr. Félix Krawatzek has made a successful application to the Daimler and Benz Foundation Scholarship Programme. The postdoctoral award has a value of 40,000 euros and will be used for his ZOiS research project "The Proliferation of Memory Laws and the Return of the Nation".
Part of the ZOiS research project The Proliferation of Memory Laws and the Return of the Nation will focus on Russia. In Russia, active use is made of memory laws to control the national historical narrative and strengthen national identity. They thus constitute a legal framework which determines what can be said in public about historical events. However, laws such as these exist not only in authoritarian regimes, but also in democracies. The project seeks to understand the political dynamics behind the juridification of memory and its wider societal implications. As part of this project, a database is being compiled on memory laws and a survey conducted in Russia.